Modular modeling and its applications in studies of grazing effects
Grazing is an important ecosystem process that can affect the grazing system at different levels. Overall grazing effect can be a combination of various direct and indirect effects. It is difficult to study grazing with all of the effects considered. To have a better knowledge of grazing effects and animal-plant interactions, modeling is one important pathway to achieve this goal. People usually use a diversity of approaches when modeling grazing based on different objectives, which makes model evaluations and comparisons difficult. With modular modeling, where different model components are ...