The Characterization of Bovine Pneumonia using Bacterial Culture, Immunohistochemistry, and PCR
Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD) is a leading cause of economic losses in the beef industry worldwide, and accounts for a majority of deaths in pre-weaned cattle after 3 weeks of age. The term is used to encompass pneumonia in cattle caused by infectious agents and environmental conditions resulting in complex pulmonary lesions. Infectious causes include both bacterial and viral agents, with current models of pathogenesis suggesting a viral infection or period of stress followed by secondary infiltration of several bacterial species. The major bacterial organisms contributing to the development ...
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