Nanoparticle Deposition with Controlled Density and Placement
Hydraulic fracturing utilizes water containing chemical additives and propping agents to increase oil and gas production in low-permeability reservoirs. Recent increase in the use of hydraulic fracturing to develop oil shales has resulted in a rise of water usage in well completion processes. Stimulating a single well can use up to five million gallons of water, with between ten and thirty percent of that water being returned to the surface in the form of flowback water. Flowback water is contaminated with hydraulic fracturing additives and naturally occurring organic compounds, making it unsafe ...
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