Uptake and bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkyl acids in edible crops via land-applied biosolids and reclaimed water
Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic anthropogenic compounds that are both lipophobic and hydrophobic. This dual nature makes them both oil and water repellent, giving them a myriad of applications (e.g., non-stick packaging, stain-resistant textiles). Due to their widespread use, municipal wastewaters are a collection vehicle for these compounds; however, most conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are ineffective at removing PFAAs. Due to their unique nature, these compounds reside in significant quantities in both the aqueous effluent and the treated ...
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