Toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc and their binary mixtures to Daphnia magna in laboratory and field-collected waters
Many surface waters are impacted by elevated concentrations of multiple metals resulting from acid mine drainage and industrial inputs. Because these elevated concentrations of metal mixtures sometimes can be toxic to aquatic life, there is a need to better understand and predict the toxicity of metal mixtures in the environment. Laboratory toxicity tests are important for providing data to develop multi-metal toxicity models. However, many laboratory toxicity tests do not closely mimic the aqueous geochemistry at contaminated sites. Therefore, it is difficult to accurately predict the toxicity ...
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