Biologically active filtration for treatment of produced water and fracturing flowback wastewater in the O&G industry
Sustainable development of unconventional oil and gas reserves, particularly tight oil, tight gas, and shale gas, requires prudent management of water resources used during drilling, well completion, and production activities. Economic viability of unconventional resource de-velopment can be attributed to technical advancements in horizontal drilling and hydraulic frac-turing, both of which are water-intensive operations. On average, 2 to 5 million gallons of water are required for multistage hydraulic fracturing of a single horizontal well. This raises concerns about freshwater acquisition and ...
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