International prevalence and cross-national consistency of sociodemographic risk factors for corporal punishment and harsh verbal punishment of children
Corporal punishment has been an accepted and nearly ubiquitous parenting behavior across varied cultures and historical periods, but a growing body of research has raised questions about both the ethics of the practice and its ability to achieve desired effects. Notably, corporal punishment is associated with a variety of negative outcomes, including aggression, antisocial behavior, and escalation to physical child abuse. Harsh verbal punishment has also been associated with poor outcomes including increases in externalizing behaviors (e.g. aggressive and delinquent behavior), depression, and ...
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