Integration of Accelerated Precipitation Softening-Microfiltration (APS-MF) Assembly to Maximize Water Recovery from the Treatment of Brackish Water
The development of hydrocarbon resources such as crude oil, coalbed methane, conventional gas, and tight-shale gas unvaryingly results in the generation of brackish wastewaters. Brackish wastewater is characterized by salt content, often expressed as total dissolved solids (TDS). In the United States alone, over 21 billion barrels of produced water are generated every year. The disposal of this produced water has major economic and environmental implications. Current reverse osmosis (RO) treatment methods yield clean water recovery rates ranging from 50-75%. The recovery is largely limited by ...
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