High field solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance experimental study for clay and shale swelling, A
The development of the shale resources faces many problems related to their complex structure and challenging conditions. Drilling and fracturing operations suffer from the swelling tendency of clays and shale formations. The expansion mechanisms of clays have been discussed in detail in the literature and several theories have been developed to predict the swelling in shales. The crystalline (interlayer), double-layer, and the layers breakage/formation swelling mechanisms are the mechanisms that are the most contributing for the clay swelling. They all depend on the ionic concentration of the ...
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