X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigation of surfaces and interfaces in fuel cell applications
Advanced characterization methods play a central role in materials development, from initial exploratory synthesis to the testing and validation stage. A particularly powerful technique widely employed to identify synthesis-property-processing-performance correlations is X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS yields surface sensitive, element-specific information which can be analyzed to reveal differences in composition, oxidation state, and chemical interactions within a sample set. While typical XPS measurements are conducted under ultra-high vacuum (UHV), its applicability can be expanded ...
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