Studies of elves and their connection to lightning with the Pierre Auger Observatory
Emissions of Light and Very-low frequency perturbations due to Electromagnetic pulse Sources (elves) are observed by the Pierre Auger Cosmic-Ray Observatory (Auger), located in Malargüe, Argentina, with an unprecedented acquisition rate of 10 MHz. An elve is a ring-shaped transient luminous event that expands across the base of the ionosphere at 90 km altitude, above thunderstorms. The elve-observation footprint of the Auger Fluorescence Detector (FD) is 3×10^6 km2, extending over this region known for the highest lightning-flash rate in the tallest thunderstorms on Earth. Northern Argentina has ...
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