Impacts of rare earth elements on biological wastewater treatment processes
Rare earth elements (REEs) underpin a host of technologies that are central to modern society, including portable electronics, renewable and clean energy components, medical devices, and military equipment. Obtaining purified REE end products involves numerous physical and chemical processes, many of which generate large volumes of waste that, if not handled appropriately, can cause significant environmental, economic, and social impacts. In some cases, industrial operators involved in the processing or recycling of REEs may seek to discharge REE-impacted wastewater to municipal water resources ...
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