Valid debris-flow models must avoid hot starts
Debris-flow experiments and models commonly use “hot-start” initial conditions in which downslope motion begins when a large force imbalance is abruptly imposed. By contrast, initiation of natural debris flows almost invariably results from small perturbations of static force balances that apply to debris masses poised in steep channels or on steep slopes. Models that neglect these static balances may violate physical law. Here we assess how the effects of hot starts are manifested in physical experiments, analytical dam-break models, and numerical models in which frictional resistance is too ...
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