Reduced-order energy modeling for advanced setpoint controls of residential buildings with time-of-use rates
In the United States, approximately 40% of energy is consumed by commercial and residential buildings, primarily attributed to a building's heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. During periods of extreme temperatures, these cooling systems are pushed to their limits and components of the grid system are stressed. This can result in grid system instability, lead to potential health concerns for building occupants, and result in higher energy costs for utilities and building owners. One solution to address this problem is implementing variable electric rates with the use of ...