Three essays on substitution in clean energy applications
This dissertation presents three essays that deal with the measurement of substitutability in different contexts pertaining to clean energy. The first two essays deal with material substitution in permanent magnets used in wind turbines that rely on rare earth elements for the provision of certain essential properties. These two chapters use two somewhat nontraditional approaches to measuring price responsiveness, since quality data on uses of rare earth elements is scarce. These are followed by an essay on substitution between programs offered by electric utilities to satisfy preferences for ...