Engineered osmosis technology for desalination of oil and gas exploration wastewaters: assessment of membrane performance and process sustainability
The United States is experiencing rapid growth in oil and gas (O&G) exploration and production. Consequently, there is an ever-increasing demand for water, necessary for well drilling and for enhancement of O&G extraction from different formations. At a single drilling location, over 1,000,000 gallons of drilling wastewater and 5,000,000 gallons of hydraulic fracturing wastewater can be generated in the course of several weeks. This wastewater contains chemicals that assist in drilling and hydraulic fracturing, minerals leached from subsurface formations, and dissolved and suspended organic and ...
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