Damage from proton irradiation of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers
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Damage resulting from irradiating oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers became significant (threshold shift ≈ 20%, peak power degradation ≈ 20%) at fluence levels approaching 1 × 1013 protons/cm2. The threshold current shifted to higher values, and the peak light output power decreased. Forward-current annealing led to partial recovery of the performance of two of the three lasers for which annealing was attempted. Recent results [1-3] on proton-implanted devices are summarized in a table.