Monitoring wildlife-vehicle collisions : analysis and cost-benefit of escape ramps for deer and elk on U.S. Highway 550
Wildlife fencing along highways can lower wildlife-vehicle collision rates by excluding animals from the road right-of-way. Still, animals can breach fencing and end up trapped within the fencing along the highway right-of-way, exposing wildlife and motorists to the risk of collision. Wildlife escape ramps are designed to allow trapped animals safe passage out of the right-of-way. Few recommendations exist on effective design of escape ramps and monitoring data are limited. We investigated the usage levels, escape success, wildlife-vehicle collisions, and design of 11 escape ramps and two escape ...