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Item Open AccessLepidoptera of North America 2. Distribution of the butterflies (Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea) of the eastern United States(Colorado State University. Libraries, 1995) Opler, Paul A., author; Department of Entomology, Colorado State University, publisher Item Open AccessLepidoptera of North America 1. Distribution of silkmoths (Saturniidae) and hawkmoths (Sphingidae) of eastern North America(Colorado State University. Libraries, 1995) Opler, Paul A., author; Department of Entomology, Colorado State University, publisher Item Open AccessLepidoptera of North America 5. Contributions to the knowledge of southern West Virginia Lepidoptera(Colorado State University. Libraries, 2004) Albu, Valeriu, author; Metzler, Eric H., author; C. P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, Colorado State University, publisherA list of 1531 species of Lepidoptera is presented, collected over 15 years (1988 to 2002), in eleven southern West Virginia counties. A variety of collecting methods was used, including netting, light attracting, light trapping and pheromone trapping. The specimens were identified by the currently available pictorial sources and determination keys. Many were also sent to specialists for confirmation or identification. The majority of the data was from Kanawha County, reflecting the area of more intensive sampling effort by the senior author. This imbalance of data between Kanawha County and other counties should even out with further sampling of the area. Item Open AccessLepidoptera of North America 4. Scientific names list for butterfly species of North America, north of Mexico(Colorado State University. Libraries, 2004) Opler, Paul A., author; Warren, Andrew D., author; Department of Bioagricultural Sciences, Colorado State University, publisher Item Open AccessLepidoptera of North America 6. Butterflies of Oregon their taxonomy, distribution, and biology(Colorado State University. Libraries, 2005) Warren, Andrew D., author; Herrera, Alfonso L., author; C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, publisher Item Open AccessLepidoptera of North America 8. Butterfly research in Boulder County, Colorado 2004-2007(Colorado State University. Libraries, 2008) Chu, Janet Pattee, author; Sportiello, Mike, author; C. P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, Colorado State University, publisherIn 2007, surveys recording the numbers of butterfly species and individuals were performed on a total of 39 survey days in 15 different locations within Boulder County. These surveys were conducted in a variety of habitats, ranging from prairie grasslands to upper montane forests. In addition to extending previous multi-year studies in areas such as Heil Valley, Caribou Ranch, and Cal-Wood Education Center, this year's research included butterfly inventories in an area not previously surveyed by our team, the Variegated Fritillary productive Southeast Buffer prairies managed by Boulder County Parks and Open Space. Specifically, this year's research was conducted to extend the county butterfly database generated in previous years, determining butterfly species' locations and population numbers, flight periods, and host or food plant interactions. Locating rare or uncommon butterfly species for this county was an additional objective of our group. A notable phenomenon this year was the appearance of many migrant species that took advantage of the county's wealth of rich nectar sources resulting from heavy rainfall in April and plentiful groundwater. Three migrant butterfly species not previously reported by our team were observed in 2007, including: Southern Dogface (Zerene cesonia), Sleepy Orange (Abaeis nicippe), and Common Buckeye (Junonia coenia). The Mylitta Crescent (Phyciodes mylitta), a county record discovered in 2005 by this research team, was again located in 2007. Two rare skippers - Arogos (Atrytone arogos) and Ottoe (Hesperia ottoe) - remain elusive, providing a compelling reason to continue the search in 2008. Some of the significant trends observed from this year's surveys include an increase in the number of Variegated (Euptoieta claudia) and Aphrodite (Speyeria aphrodite) Fritillaries, as well as Black Swallowtails (Papilio polyxenes), in a variety of locations and habitats; a decrease in the number of Hoary Commas (Polygonia gracilis), Field Crescents (Phyciodes pulchella), and Western Pine Elfins (Callophrys eryphon) in appropriate habitats; and a record high number of butterfly species and individuals reported at the annual Cal-Wood Fourth of July Butterfly Count, along with a record number of human participants in this public educational event. Item Open AccessLepidoptera of North America 9. Butterfly distribution and dispersion across the Montane Islands and drainages of the Chihuahuan Desert(Colorado State University. Libraries, 2009-09) Holland, Richard, author; C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, publisherThis paper tabulates the butterfly fauna of 36 montane and five canyon land refugia in the Chihuahuan desert, primarily in New Mexico and Trans-Pecos Texas, but to some extent also in Ariwna, Colorado, Sonora, Chihuahua, and Coahuila. Theories for butterfly dispersal between ranges are evaluated by examining the fauna correlation between refugia Refuge diversity is highest in the Gila Mts. complex (ca. 175 sp.) and lowest in the canyon lands of northeastern New Mexico (ca. 70 sp.). As a general rule, population diversity decreases as one retreats farther from the main backbone of the Rocky Mts. to the north or from the main branches of the Sierra Madre to the south. The 41 refugia are divided into eight groups, each consisting of three to eight members. About 27 additional refugia are not discussed, either because data is lacking (eight cases) or because the computer analysis began to become unstable, and the sheer data volume unmanageable. Item Open AccessLepidoptera of North America 10. Review of Plebejus icarioides and Glaucopsyche lygdamus in New Mexico with four new subspecies (Lycaenide, Lycaninae, Polyommantini)(Colorado State University. Libraries, 2011) Holland, Richard W., author; C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, publisher Item Open AccessLepidoptera of North America 13. Flower visitation by Colorado butterflies (40,615 Records) with a review of the literature on pollination of Colorado plants and butterfly attraction (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea)(Colorado State University. Libraries, 2014) Scott, James A., author; C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, publisherI present 40,615 of my records of visits of adult butterflies (LEPIDOPTERA: Papilionoidea, Hesperioidea) to flowers and other food/water sources. Part I arranges the records by butterfly species to determine the flowers/foods most often visited by each butterfly species. Most butterflies visit a wide range of colors and types of flowers, with fewer visits to red at least in part because of a shortage of red flowers in the Colorado flora (subtropical/tropical butterflies evidently visit red more often, as demonstrated by hundreds of literature records for Phoebis sennae). But some butterflies show very different restricted preferences. Butterflies often visit numerous flowers that lack a “landing platform”, as their legs are capable of landing on any type of flower, so a landing platform is not necessary. Most popular flowers have a clustered inflorescence, though some do not. All Colorado butterflies prefer flowers that are in floral displays of clusters or closely joined together; none prefer solitary flowers. Short-proboscis butterflies are limited to smaller flowers. Lycaenidae mostly visit yellow and white flowers, probably in part because of a greater frequency of yellow and white colors among flowers that are small enough for their short proboscis. Long-proboscis butterflies can recycle abdominal fluid to dissolve dung for food, and they visit red flowers more often. Butterfly flight height partly determines which flowers can be visited. Apocynaceae (Apocynum and Asclepias) flowers sometimes kill butterflies by catching their proboscis. Females frequently sip mud, so it is a myth that butterflies visit mud only to get sodium; many visit mud to rehydrate. Part II arranges the records by flower species, and includes flower species that are common but not visited, to determine which flowers are attractive to butterflies and which are not. Although butterflies in general are not very particular in their flower choice (especially regarding flower color and ultraviolet pattern and size and shape), most of the pretty flowers in nature are seldom or never visited by butterflies, which seems to mean that floral scent is important in both attracting and repelling butterflies to flowers. The most popular plant family for butterflies is Asteraceae, in which most genera are popular. Other very popular flowers are Asclepias, Apocynum, Verbena, Monarda, Buddleja, Eriogonum, Sedum lanceolatum, Erysimum, Jamesia, some legumes including Medicago sativa, Lythrum, Cnidoscolus, Ceanothus, Aesculus, many Lamiaceae, Penstemon, and Lobelia siphilitica. Popular “butterfly flowers” merely must have white or visibly-bright colors, diurnal flowering, adequate but not strong floral scent, sufficient sugar concentration, and adequate access for the proboscis; nothing else seems necessary. Butterflies that visit sap and rotting fruit mostly belong to groups within Nymphalidae that display this behavior worldwide, while dung and carrion feeding occur in all the major taxa of butterflies. The chemical compounds attracting butterflies to flowers are reviewed and discussed, and specific chemicals attracting them to sap, rotting fruit, carrion, dung, etc. are successfully pinpointed from the literature. Known pollinators are listed for the Colorado plants that are popular and not popular with butterflies. Very few if any Colorado plants seem to be primarily pollinated by butterflies (most are pollinated by bees), and evidently no plants would become extinct if butterflies were not available to pollinate them. Thus Colorado butterflies are generally only occasional pollinators of flowers. Much more work needs to be done on the floral scents that attract butterflies. Item Open AccessLepidoptera of North America 3.4. Butterflies of Kern and Tulare counties, California (Revised)(Colorado State University. Libraries, 2014) Colorado State University. Department of Bioagricultural Sciences and Pest Management, author; C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, author Item Open AccessLepidoptera of North America 12. Butterflies - 2018 inventories in nine Boulder County open spaces(Colorado State University. Libraries, 2018) Chu, Janet, author; C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, publisherThis was the fifteenth year butterflies were inventoried on nine select properties within Boulder County Parks and Open Space (BCPOS) lands. The trend for all butterfly species was determined for all surveyed Open Spaces and shows a downward trend of approximately -1.3 Individuals per Research Hour per Year. This trend (R2=0.4) explains 40% of the variation for years 2004 through 2018 which is a decrease of almost 3% /year. This leads to the conclusion that the butterfly population will be significantly diminished over time under present conditions. Our results indicate that most butterfly species are not reproducing successfully enough to keep their population numbers stable within Boulder County. Cabbage Whites (Pieris rapae) and Aphrodite Fritillaries (Speyeria aphrodite) were the most numerous of individual butterflies while Field Crescents (Phyciodes pulchella) represented the widest distribution flying in each of the Open Spaces. These resident butterflies are indicator species, as they are primary for determining if the environment is remaining vital. Of course, the BCPOS properties are influenced by state-wide and national environmental changes. Fourteen volunteers were in the field 70 days completing 175 hours of Research Hours (RH) in 2018 recording data and taking photographs. Often team members hiked somewhat near each member to observe, then experienced members input their sightings into the single day's data. The season's cumulative volunteer hours totaled 500. Of course, those following a transect were usually hiking alone, their numbers available separately, but in 2018 these were counted within the seasonal data. Item Open AccessLepidoptera of North America 15. Butterflies of southern California in 2018: updating Emmel and Emmel's 1973 Butterflies of southern California(Colorado State University. Libraries, 2018) Davenport, Ken, author; C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, publisherIt has now been more than 44 years since Thomas C. Emmel and John F. Emmel's The Butterflies of Southern California was published on November 30, 1973. The Emmels' provided a history of previous leaders in gathering information on the fauna of southern California butterflies, information on life zones and butterfly habitats and season progression. They also listed areas little visited that needed more field study. They covered 167 species and an additional 64 subspecies or segregates (many of those have since been elevated to species status or removed as segregates for not being all that distinct since 1973) known from southern California based on the boundaries they set and provided a list of rarely recorded or doubtful records, ten color plates, and literature cited. More than 100 contributors helped provide them information and observations for the project. What about now? At the start of 2018 with the addition of some added territory in this work, those numbers have increased. In this updated study, I will include all of San Luis Obispo County, extend the northern boundaries about 20 to 25 miles north in the Sierra Nevada (the Kern Plateau was excluded in the 1973 publication, possibly because that area was still poorly known at that time) and Greenhorn Mountains to include part of the Sierra Nevada on the Kern Plateau north to the Sherman Pass Road as the north boundary and extend territory in Inyo County north to Lone Pine and Whitney Portal which is the northern limit of the Mojave Desert. Emmel & Emmel had included the southern part of Death Valley National Monument (now a National Park) in their work. That now brings us to 209 species (five subspecies are now given species status herein) and 160 subspecies or segregates. Item Open AccessLepidoptera of North America 16. Butterflies of the Sierra Nevada(Colorado State University. Libraries, 2020) Davenport, Ken, author; C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, publisherThis publication covers the butterfly fauna of the Sierra Nevada mountain range in eastern California and a small area of the Carson Spur in western Nevada. At present (2019), 192 species, 104 subspecies and 15 segregates are known to have occurred within the range at least twice. Five additional species have been recorded at least once in the Sierra Nevada. This publication covers distributions of these butterflies within the Sierra Nevada and three National Parks, their habitats, flight periods and taxonomic issues based on current knowledge. Item Open AccessLepidoptera of North America 17. 2019 butterfly inventories within Boulder County open spaces, Boulder, Colorado(Colorado State University. Libraries, 2020-03) Chu, Janet, author; C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, publisherButterfly Inventories took place for the 16th consecutive year within Boulder County Open Space properties. Over the years 2004-2019, 129 butterfly species have been sighted in eight of the Open Spaces; 76 were counted in this year alone. More photographers than ever before on the team this season captured nearly 93 of the known 202 butterflies in Boulder County. These Butterfly Research Volunteers helped collect data during 340 field hours. Venice Kelly studying on Sherwood Road and in the main Caribou Ranch contributed at least 53 hours on site. Other volunteers did not complete the past transects due to several reasons: trail being moved in the mid-season to a newer, grassier area from Geer Watershed, Heil Valley Ranch; unsafe high-speed bicycle interactions on the Loop Trail, Walker Ranch; personal reasons on Anne U. White Trail. Late wet, cold spring weather slowed butterfly emergences, resulting in some normally typically spring species flying with the early summer species. Certain summer species flew later into the early fall. August and September were mostly hot and dry allowing the continued flight by many brush-foot (Nymphalidae) butterflies. Item Open AccessLepidoptera of North America 14. Geometroidea: Geometridae: Larentiinae: Eupitheciini (Part)(Colorado State University. Libraries, 2022-01-15) Ferris, Clifford D., author; C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, publisherA review of of the North American species in the Geometridae: Larentiinae: Eupitheciini (Eupithecia, Nasusina, and Prorella) is presented. A series of species plates arranged in phylogenetic order follows a limited discussion of this group. Each plate illustrates both sexes (when known) of the adult moths and their associated genitalia. Minimal accompanying text provides the following information: literature citation for the original description; type locality; location of the type; biology when known with flight period; geographic distribution; and key diagnostic characters. A comprehensive annotated bibliography is included. The 2018 edition includes ix + 22 pp. + 191 plates and will not be revised. The November 2019 supplement provides 35 additional plates with associated text as appropriate. The revised supplement January 2022 provides 48 additional plates with associated text as appropriate, and replaces the previous 2019 Supplement. Two new species from New Mexico are described: Eupithecia vargoi and E. longispinata. The additional plates are not in phylogenetic order, but in sequence as the associated specimens were obtained, dissected and photographed. Item Open AccessLepidoptera of North America 18. 2021 butterfly inventories within Boulder County open spaces, Boulder, Colorado(Colorado State University. Libraries, 2022-04-04) Chu, Janet, author; Hirschfeld, Sue, author; Kelly, Venice, author; C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, publisherThe butterfly inventories continued for the 18th year in a few of the Boulder County Open Space properties. However, because of the Calwood Fire during October 17, 2020, two of the survey areas were inaccessible; Plumely Canyon and the work road through the streamlet near the Lichen Trail. Geer Watershed had been burned, but the meadows above the Resident Ranger's Cabin and associated streamlets were made accessible with our 2021 permit. Cabbage Whites (Pieris rapae), Orange Sulphurs (Colias eurytheme) and Common Wood-nymphs (Cercyonis pegala) were more numerous when compared to 2015-2020 populations before the burn. In 2021 within other Open Spaces, Anne U. White and Caribou, the resident species produced noticeably large populations: Julia Orangetips (Anthocharis julia), Pine Whites (Neophasia menapia), Northern Checkerspots (Chlosyne palla), Common Wood-nymphs, Small Wood-nymphs (C. oetus), Common Checkered-skippers (Burnsius communis). On the other hand, the well adapted non- native Cabbage Whites were again the most common during the long season; Variegated Fritillaries (Euptoieta claudia) and Dainty Sulphurs (Nathalis iole) were numerous flying in from colonies in the eastern plains and low foothills where their host plants were plentiful. 95 species were seen in 2021: 129 species between 2004 and 2021 in the county Open Spaces. 203 species are on the record for Boulder County (Butterflies and Moths of America 2021) website. The average number of species per year observed within the Open Spaces by this team is 88. Item Open AccessLepidoptera of North America 19. Pawnee montane skipper Hesperia leonardus montana Skinner (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae): habitat requirements, distribution and abundance, population responses to forest thinning and wildfire, and genetic investigations(Colorado State University. Libraries, 2023) Ellis, Scott, author; Sovell, John, author; Painter, Mikele, author; Drummond, Boyce A., editor; C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, publisherThis Contribution summarizes field studies conducted between 1985 and 2021 on the habitat and biology of the federally listed Pawnee montane skipper butterfly (Hesperia leonardus montana Skinner) and its population responses to forest thinning treatments and large wildfires within the same time frame. Other smaller studies and genetic information are also summarized. H. l. montana (Hlm) occupies a total known range of less than 80 square miles within the South Platte River drainage southwest of Denver, Colorado. Habitat consists of xeric conifer woodland dominated by an overstory of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), an understory of blue grama grass (Bouteloua gracilis), which is the larval foodplant, and dotted gayfeather (Liatris punctata), the primary adult nectar source. Peak adult Hlm densities during late August to early September generally ranged from 1 to 4 individuals per acre. Based on Hlm densities measured in 1986 belt transects, August abundance estimates ranged from 77,000 to 141,000 individuals within suitable habitat. If the Two Forks Reservoir were built, approximately 21 percent of Hlm suitable habitat would be inundated, and from 23 to 42 percent of the Hlm population would be lost, inferred from the 1986 skipper density measurements. The overall pattern of adult Hlm annual densities at the Trumbull forest thinning transects is interpreted as recovery from the 2001-2002 drought through 2007. Then density varied from year to year in response to both above and below average annual precipitation and temperature, but a general trend of increasing population size through 2021. Forest thinning treatments that were implemented at Trumbull from 2000 through 2004 are compatible with the continued survival of the skipper. A tree thinning pattern that preserves a conifer canopy cover of approximately 30 percent and 100 trees (5 inches or greater in diameter) per acre appears optimum for maintenance of Hlm habitat. Post-Hayman fire Hlm monitoring in moderately to intensively burned areas documents slow population recovery over time. Monitoring indicates that Hlm occurrence is negatively associated with standing dead trees, which may mean that intensively burned areas will remain sparsely inhabited over the long term. This avoidance behavior means that crown fires that kill all mature conifers represent a significant risk to the suitable habitat extent for this species. Genetic samples from Hlm and congeners were analyzed to investigate species and subspecies relationships and determine Hlm population substructure. Analysis of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) showed H. leonardus haplotypes are distinct from other Hesperia species, but it was not possible to distinguish H. leonardus subspecies from one another based on the observed COI haplotypes. Population structure analysis of Hlm samples using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping revealed gene flow throughout the range of Hlm, but clusters of more related individuals were distinguishable along a geographic gradient from north to south. Two individuals collected 4 miles south of the 1986 study area were noticeably different in the SNP analysis. The area includes remnants of ponderosa pine forest with blue grama and dotted gayfeather that survived the Hayman Fire. More investigation is needed to determine if this finding indicates an isolated subpopulation.