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- ItemOpen AccessData associated with "Health and environmental justice implications of retiring two coal‐fired power plants in the southern Front Range region of Colorado"(Colorado State University. Libraries, 2019) Martenies, Sheena; Akherati, Ali; Jathar, Shantanu; Magzamen, SherylDespite improvements in air quality over the past 50 years, ambient air pollution remains an important public health issue in the United States. In particular, emissions from coal-fired power plants still have a substantial impact on both nearby and regional populations. Of particular concern is the potential for this impact to fall disproportionately on low-income communities and communities of color. We conducted a quantitative health impact assessment to estimate the health benefits of the proposed decommissioning of coal-fired boilers at two electricity generating stations in the Southern Front Range region of Colorado. We estimated changes in exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone due to reductions in emission using the Community Multiscale Air Quality model and predicted avoided health impacts and related economic values. In addition to estimating health benefits of reduced emissions, we assessed the distribution of these benefits by population-level socioeconomic status using concentration curves. Across the study area, decommissioning the power plants would result in 4 (95% CI: 2 – 6) avoided premature deaths each year due to reduced PM2.5 exposures and greater reductions in hospitalizations and other morbidities. Health benefits resulting from the modeled shutdowns were greatest in areas with lower median incomes, lower percentages of high school graduates, and higher proportions of households with incomes below the poverty line. However, in our study area, we did not observe higher benefits when examining area-level percentage of residents of color, largely due to the distribution of the smaller proportion of the population in the region that identifies as non-White. Our results suggest that decommissioning the power plants in the southern Front Range and replacing them with zero-emissions sources could have broad public health benefits for residents of Colorado, with larger benefits for those that are socially disadvantaged and historically bear greater environmental pollution burdens. These results also suggested that researchers and decision makers need to consider the unique demographics of their study areas to ensure that important opportunities to reduce health disparities associated with point-source pollution.
- ItemOpen AccessDataset associated with "Effects of fuel moisture content on emissions from a rocket-elbow cookstove"(Colorado State University. Libraries, 2019) van Zyl, Lizette; Tryner, Jessica; Bilsback, Kelsey; Good, Nicholas; Hecobian, Arsineh; Sullivan, Amy P.; Zhou, Yong; Peel, Jennifer; Volckens, JohnExposure to air pollution from solid-fuel cookstoves is a leading risk factor for premature death; however, the effect of fuel moisture content on air pollutant emissions from solid-fuel cookstoves remains poorly constrained. The objective of this work was to characterize emissions from a rocket-elbow cookstove burning wood at three different moisture levels (5%, 15%, and 25% on a dry mass basis). Emissions of CO2, carbon monoxide (CO), methane, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, fine particulate matter (PM2.5), elemental carbon (EC), and organic carbon (OC) were measured. Emission factors (EFs; g·MJdelivered-1) for all pollutants, except CO2 and EC, increased with increasing fuel moisture content: CO EFs increased by 84%, benzene EFs increased by 82%, PM2.5 EFs increased by 149%, and formaldehyde EFs increased by 216%. Both modified combustion efficiency and the temperature at the combustion chamber exit decreased with increasing fuel moisture, suggesting that the energy required to vaporize water in the fuel led to lower temperatures in the combustion chamber and lower gas-phase oxidation rates. These results illustrate that changes in fuel equilibrium moisture content could cause EFs for pollutants such as PM2.5 and formaldehyde to vary by a factor of two or more across different geographic regions.
- ItemOpen AccessDataset associated with "Genome-wide association analysis of canine T zone lymphoma identifies link to hypothyroidism and a shared association with mast-cell tumors"(Colorado State University. Libraries, 2020) Labadie, Julia D.; Elvers, Ingegerd; Spencer Feigelson, Heather; Magzamen, Sheryl; Yoshimoto, Janna; Dossey, Jeremy; Burnett, Robert; Avery, Anne C.Background: T zone lymphoma (TZL), a histologic variant of peripheral T cell lymphoma, represents about 12% of all canine lymphomas. Golden Retrievers appear predisposed, representing over 40% of TZL cases. Prior research found that asymptomatic aged Golden Retrievers frequently have populations of T zone-like cells (phenotypically identical to TZL) of undetermined significance (TZUS), potentially representing a pre-clinical state. These findings suggest a genetic risk factor for this disease and caused us to investigate potential genes of interest. Methods: Privately-owned U.S. Golden Retrievers were categorized as TZL (n=95), TZUS (n=142), or control (n=101) using flow cytometry and genotyped using the Illumina CanineHD BeadChip. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-specific associations were evaluated using a mixed linear model adjusting for population stratification. Associated regions were subsequently sequenced using a custom sequence capture array (NimbleGen SeqCap EZ Developer Kit) on an Illumina NextSeq 500. Results: We found association with genome-wide significance in regions on chromosomes 8 and 14. The chromosome 14 peak included four SNPs (Odds Ratio=1.18–1.19, p=.3x10-5–5.1x10-5) near three hyaluronidase genes (SPAM1, HYAL4, and HYALP1). Targeted resequencing of this region identified missense mutations in all three genes; the variant in SPAM1 was predicted to be damaging. These mutations were also associated with risk for mast cell tumors among Golden Retrievers in an unrelated study. The chromosome 8 peak contained 7 SNPs (Odds Ratio=1.24–1.42, p= 2.7x10-7–7.5x10-5) near genes involved in thyroid hormone regulation (DIO2 and TSHR). A prior study from our laboratory found hypothyroidism is inversely associated with TZL risk. No coding mutations were found with targeted resequencing but identified variants may play a regulatory role for all or some of the genes. Conclusions: The pathogenesis of canine TZL may be related to hyaluronan breakdown and subsequent production of pro-inflammatory and pro-oncogenic byproducts. The association on chromosome 8 may indicate thyroid hormone is involved in TZL development, consistent with findings from a previous study evaluating epidemiologic risk factors for TZL. Future work is needed to elucidate these mechanisms.
- ItemOpen AccessDataset of filtration efficiency associated with "Quantifying the health benefits of face masks and respirators to mitigate exposure to severe air pollution"(Colorado State University. Libraries, 2021) Kodros, John K; O'Dell, Katelyn; Samet, Jon; L'Orange, Christian; Pierce, Jeffrey R.; Volckens, JohnFamiliarity with the use of face coverings to reduce the risk of respiratory disease has increased during the coronavirus pandemic; however, recommendations for their use outside of the pandemic remains limited. Here, we develop a modeling framework to quantify the potential health benefits of wearing a face covering or respirator to mitigate exposure to severe air pollution. This framework accounts for the wide range of available face coverings and respirators, fit factors and efficacy, air pollution characteristics, and exposure-response data. Our modeling shows that N95 respirators offer robust protection against different sources of air pollution, reducing exposure by more than a factor of 14 when worn with a leak rate of 5%. Synthetic-fiber masks offer less protection with a strong dependence on aerosol size distribution (protection factors ranging from 4.4 to 2.2.), while natural-fiber and surgical masks offer reductions in exposure of 1.9 and 1.7, respectively. To assess the ability of face coverings to provide population-level health benefits to wildfire smoke, we perform a case study for the 2012 Washington state fire season. Our models suggest that although natural-fiber masks offer minor reductions in respiratory hospitalizations attributable to smoke (2-11%) due to limited filtration efficiency, N95 respirators and to a lesser extent surgical and synthetic-fiber masks may lead to notable reductions in smoke-attributable hospitalizations (22-39%, 9-24%, and 7-18%, respectively). The filtration efficiency, bypass rate, compliance rate (fraction of time and population wearing the device) are the key factors governing exposure reduction potential and health benefits during severe air pollution events.
- ItemOpen AccessData set associated with “A low-cost monitor for simultaneous measurement of fine particulate matter and aerosol optical depth – Part 3: Automation and design improvements”(Colorado State University. Libraries, 2021) Wendt, Eric A.Atmospheric particulate matter smaller than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5) impacts public health, the environment, and the climate. Consequently, a need exists for accurate, distributed measurements of surface-level PM2.5 concentrations at a global scale. Remote sensing observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD) have been used to estimate surface-level PM2.5 for studies on human health and the Earth system. However, these estimates are uncertain due to a lack of measurements available to validate the derived PM2.5 products, which rely on the ratio of surface PM2.5 to AOD. Traditional monitoring of these two air quality metrics is costly and cumbersome, leading to a lack of surface monitoring networks with high spatial density. In part 1 of this series we described the development and validation of a first-generation device for low-cost measurement of AOD and PM2.5: The Aerosol Mass and Optical Depth (AMODv1) sampler. Part 2 of the series describes a citizen-science field deployment of the AMODv1 device. Here in part 3, we present an autonomous version of the AMOD, known as AMODv2, capable of unsupervised measurement of AOD and PM2.5 at 20-minute time intervals. The AMOD includes a set of four optically filtered photodiodes for multi-wavelength (current version at 440, 500, 675, and 870 nm) AOD, a Plantower PMS5003 sensor for time-resolved optical PM2.5 measurements, and a pump and cyclone system for time-integrated gravimetric filter measurements of particle mass and composition. The AMODv2 uses low-cost motors and sensor data for autonomous sun alignment to provide the semi-continuous AOD measurements. Operators can connect to the AMODv2 over Bluetooth® and configure a sample using a smartphone application. A Wi-Fi module enables real-time data streaming and visualization on our website (csu-ceams.com). We present a sample deployment of 10 AMODv2s during a wildfire smoke event and demonstrate the ability of the instrument to capture changes in air quality at sub-hourly time resolution. We also present the results of an AOD validation campaign where AMODv2s were co-located with AERONET (Aerosol Robotics Network) instruments as the reference method at AOD levels ranging from 0.016-1.59. We observed close agreement between AMODv2s and the reference instrument with mean absolute errors of 0.046, 0.057, 0.026, and 0.033 AOD units at 440 nm, 500 nm, 675 nm, and 870 nm, respectively. We identified individual unit bias as the primary source of error between AMODv2s and reference units and propose re-calibration to mitigate these biases. The AMODv2 is well suited for citizen-science and other high-spatial-density deployments due to its low cost, compact form, user-friendly interface, and high measurement frequency of AOD and PM2.5. These deployments could provide a rich air pollution data set for evaluating remote sensing observations, atmospheric modeling simulations, and provide communities with the information they need to implement effective public health and environmental interventions.
- ItemOpen AccessDataset associated with "Aerosol Emissions from Wind Instruments: Effects of Performer Age, Sex, Sound Pressure Level, and Bell Covers"(Colorado State University. Libraries, 2022) Volckens, John; Good, Kristen M.; Goble, Dan; Good, Nicholas; Keller, Joshua P.; Keisling, Amy; L'Orange, Christian; Morton, Emily; Phillips, Rebecca; Tanner, KyAerosol emissions from wind instruments are a suspected route of transmission for airborne infectious diseases, such as SARS-CoV-2. We evaluated aerosol number emissions (from 0.25 – 35.15 m) from 81 volunteer performers of both sexes and varied age (12 to 63 years) while playing wind instruments (bassoon, clarinet, flute, French horn, oboe, piccolo, saxophone, trombone, trumpet, and tuba) or singing. Measured emissions spanned more than two orders of magnitude, ranging in rate from 8 to 1,400 particless-1, with brass instruments, on average, producing 191% (95% CI: 81-367%) more aerosol than woodwinds. Being male was associated with a 70% increase in emissions (vs. female; 95% CI: 9-166%). Each 1 dBA increase in sound pressure level was associated with a 28% increase (95% CI: 10-40%) in emissions from brass instruments; sound pressure level was not associated with woodwind emissions. Age was not a significant predictor of emissions. The use of bell covers reduced aerosol emissions from three brass instruments tested (trombone, tuba, and trumpet), with average reductions ranging from 53 to 73%, but not for the two woodwind instruments tested (oboe and clarinet). Results from this work can facilitate infectious disease risk management for the performing arts.
- ItemOpen AccessDairy Nasal Lavage and Exposure Data(Colorado State University. Libraries, 2022) Erlandson, GrantLivestock workers experience an increased burden of bioaerosol-induced respiratory disease including high prevalence of rhinosinusitis. Dairy operations generate bioaerosols spanning the inhalable size fraction (0-100 μm) containing bacterial constituents such as endotoxin. Particles with an aerodynamic diameter between 10-100 μm are known to deposit in the nasopharyngeal region and likely affect the upper respiratory tract. We evaluated the effectiveness of a hypertonic saline nasal lavage in reducing inflammatory responses in dairy workers from a high-volume dairy operation. Inhalable personal breathing zone samples and pre-/post-shift nasal lavage samples from each participant over five consecutive days were collected. The treatment group (n=5) received hypertonic saline while the control group (n=5) received normotonic saline. Personal breathing zone samples were analyzed for particulate concentrations and endotoxin using gravimetric and enzymatic methods, respectively. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (i.e., IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-) were measured from nasal lavage samples using a multiplex assay. Inhalable dust concentrations ranged from 0.15 to 1.9 mg/m3. Concentrations of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, specifically IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10, were significantly higher in the treatment group compared to the control group (p < 0.02, p < 0.04, and p < 0.01 respectively). Further analysis of IL-10 anti-inflammatory indicates a positive association between hypertonic saline administration and IL-10 production. This pilot study demonstrates that hypertonic saline nasal lavages were successful in upregulating anti-inflammatory cytokines to support larger interventional studies.