Browsing by Author "Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (Fort Collins, Colo.), publisher"
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Item Open Access1988 CIRA satellite research workshop(Colorado State University. Libraries, 1988) Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (Fort Collins, Colo.), publisherThis document reports on a Satellite Research Workshop sponsored by the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) that was held at the Colorado State University's Pingree Park campus from September 21-23, 1988. The workshop was designed to investigate research and applications opportunities using data from the next generation GOES and TIROS satellites. Item Open AccessA modeling study of visibility in the Grand Canyon(Colorado State University. Libraries, 1986-08) Weissbluth, Michael Jeffrey, author; Cox, Stephen K., author; Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (Fort Collins, Colo.), publisherUsing a backward version of the Monte Carlo Radiative Transfer model, radiance values in the Grand Canyon were simulated to within the precision of ten percent. The contiguous spectral contrast was introduced to distinguish between adjacent areas of the same target and compared to the apparent spectral contrast. The contiguous spectral contrast is a valuable tool in evaluating visibility because in some cases, the target became more distinguishable when viewed against the sky while the target features became less distinguishable. Average equilibrium radiance values were calculated and incorporated into the Koschmieder estimate; the Koschmieder estimate was deemed to be of limited value in the Grand Canyon because of the violation of the assumptions used to derive the estimate. It was shown that first order scattering results alone could be used to estimate apparent spectral contrast to within a 10% accuracy; higher order scattering must be considered when radiance values are calculated for the Grand Canyon scene. Item Open AccessA physical/optical model for atmospheric aerosols with application to visibility problems(Colorado State University. Libraries, 1990-01) Tsay, Si-Chee, author; Stephens, Graeme L., author; Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (Fort Collins, Colo.), publisherThe objectives of this report are to describe a conceptually simple but accurate model for efficiently computing the optical properties of atmospheric aerosols. Aerosol characteristics such as size distribution, solubility, mixture and the atmospheric moisture effect are taken into account when computing its optical properties. The dependence of the latter on aerosol microstructure is also discussed. The optical properties of aerosols are computed by employing numerically stable algorithms for obtaining Mie solutions to coated spheres. Resulting bulk quantities such as the extinction/backscatter coefficient, the probability of scattering, and the scattering phase matrix can be incorporated into multiple scattering schemes of radiative transfer for visibility investigations and other types of studies. Item Open AccessA study of tropical cyclone structural evolution(Colorado State University. Libraries, 2006) Maclay, Katherine S., author; Vonder Haar, Thomas H., author; Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (Fort Collins, Colo.), publisherThe destructive potential of a tropical cyclone is highly dependent on both the intensity and size of the storm. There has been extensive research done on intensity and intensity change, but far less work has focused on tropical cyclone structure and structural changes. The recent highly active Atlantic tropical seasons reemphasize the need for a better understanding of tropical cyclone structural evolution. This is particularly true of the 2005 season which produced a number of storms, such as Katrina, Rita, and Wilma, that not only became extremely intense, but also grew substantially in size during intensification. In contrast to these giants are the storms such as Hurricanes Charley (2004) and Emily (2005), which reached equal intensity, but remained fairly small in size. The goal of this study is to gain a better understanding of what causes these different structural evolutions in tropical cyclones. The inner core (0-200 km) wind-fields of Atlantic and Eastern Pacific tropical cyclones from 1995-2005 from aircraft reconnaissance flight-level data is used to calculate the low-level inner core kinetic energy. An inner core kinetic energy-intensity relationship is defined which describes the general trend of tropical cyclone inner core kinetic energy (KE) with respect to intensity. However, this mean KE/intensity relationship does not define the evolution of an individual storm. The KE deviations from the mean relationship for each storm are used to determine the cases where a storm is experiencing significant structural changes. The evolution of the KE deviations from the mean with respect to intensity indicates that hurricanes generally either grow and weaken or maintain their intensity, or strengthen but do not grow at the same time. The data is sorted by the state of intensification (intensifying, weakening, or maintaining intensity) and structure change (growing or non-growing), defining six sub-groups. The dynamic, thermodynamic, and internal conditions for the storm sub-groups are analyzed with the aid of statistical testing in order to determine what conditions are significantly different for growing versus non-growing storms in each intensification regime. These results reveal that there are two primary types of growth processes. The first is through eyewall replacement cycles, an internally dominated process, and the second via external forcing from the synoptic environment. As a supplement to this study, a new tropical cyclone classification system based on inner core KE is presented as a complement to the Saffir-Simpson hurricane scale. Item Open AccessAcid deposition in Colorado: a potential or current problem; local versus long-distance transport into the state(Colorado State University. Libraries, 1986) Pielke, Roger A., author; Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (Fort Collins, Colo.), publisherA compendium of papers presented at a workshop sponsored by the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere, Colorado State University in Fort Collins, Colorado on August 13-15, 1986. Item Open AccessAn observational study of summer surface wind flow over northeast Colorado(Colorado State University. Libraries, 1983-11) Toth, James J., author; Johnson, Richard H., author; Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (Fort Collins, Colo.), publisherAnalysis of summer surface winds over northeast Colorado, using data from the Program for Regional Observing and Forecasting Services (PROFS), has been carried out to investigate the diurnal wind flow pattern over the broad drainage area of the South Platte River. The pattern, similar to the classic descriptions of valley wind flows, appears in monthly averages as well as on most individual days. Unique features of the flow are documented, in particular the upslope/downslope transitions which begin near the foothills of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains and propagate eastward. Previous conceptual models of the afternoon and evening wind flow over northeast Colorado are verified. The afternoon upslope flow is often responsible for enhanced convective cloud cover in preferred locations during the summer. It is suggested that the development of moist convection modifies the diurnal flow and contributes to the late afternoon and early and evening transition to downslope flow. This study has pointed out the need for further investigations of this problem. Item Open AccessAnnual report for 1987 from the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere, Colorado State University, to Marine Meteorology Section, Ocean Sciences Division of the Office of Naval Research on studies of space/time variability of marine atmospheric boundary layer characteristics(Colorado State University. Libraries, 1988-03) Vonder Haar, Thomas H., author; Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (Fort Collins, Colo.), publisher